🤑 1. Purpose and importance of working with shaping machines

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Working Principle of the Shaper Machine. Working Principle of the Shaper Machine.


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Applications of Shaper Machine Points: Applications of Shaper Machine, Applications of Shaping Machine, Uses of shaper machine Shaping machines are.


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Make internal splines.


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Make gear teeth.


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Unlike shaping and planing machines, slotting machines are generally used to machine internal surfaces (flat, formed grooves and cylindrical). Shaping machines.


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The shaper machine is a type of machine tool which uses the relative motion between workpiece and cutting tool. This machine has linear.


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Unlike shaping and planing machines, slotting machines are generally used to machine internal surfaces (flat, formed grooves and cylindrical). Shaping machines.


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The shaper is a relatively simple machine. It is used fairly often in the toolroom or for machining one or two pieces for prototype work. Tooling is simple, and.


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Make key ways in pullies or gears.


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Working Principle of the Shaper Machine. Working Principle of the Shaper Machine.


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application of shaper machine

It is a toothed gearing which in most cases is switchable in 4, 6 or 8 steps, thus providing various speeds of the ram. The shank is often made of mild steel in order to save valuable cutting-tool material high-speed steel or because the properties of other cutting-tool materials hard metals, ceramic cutting-tool materials, diamonds require this. They are provided for such workpieces which due to their geometrical shape cannot or only with considerable effort be clamped with conventional clamping means. In order to maintain the mobility of the tool block, it is also possible to set the clapper box on the tool slide at an angle, i. Figure 16 - Tool mounting for shaping 1 - tool 2 - clamping bolt 3 - tool post 4 - clapper 5 - clapper holder 6 - bolt as axis of rotation When clamping the tools, make sure that - the tools are sufficiently stable in the shank section according to the cutting conditions roughing or finishing ; - the holding surfaces are even and free from dirt; - in the case of super high-speed steel tools pointlike clamping forces are distributed to a larger area by means of supports; - the tools are clamped as short as possible and especially firmly so that lateral twisting of the tool due to too high lateral compressive forces is prevented and does not lead to a change of the cutting depth. Why is the machine column frame of stable design and made of grey cast iron? The number of double strokes is derived directly from the cutting speed in connection with the stroke length. The main gearing consists of a gear train. In order to avoid constant correction of the clamping tools loss of time during work , the position of the ram stroke shall quickly and safely be adjusted on the machine. Large stroke - long path of the crank pin during the working stroke and in relation to this, considerably shorter path during the return stroke. It is, however, also possible to make circularly arched surfaces The cutting is effected with single-edged tools in the interrupted cut with a working stroke and a return stroke. Saddle 7. Modern machines have an automatic tool lifter. Main gearing gear train and oscillating slider crank mechanism 3. Figure 6 - Ram head with tool slide 1 - clapper 2 - toolholder 3 - tool base 4 - clapper axis 5 - clapper box 6 - tool slide 7 - crank with actuating screw 8 - dividing ring 9 - swivel-head plate 10 - ram During the working stroke the tool block rests on the clapper box as a result of the cutting pressure , during the return stroke it is lifted. For machining circular-arc shaped parts special ram heads have been developed. What has to be considered when clamping workpieces? Example of calculation : A workpiece made of steel St 42 having a length of mm shall be machined on the shaping machine by roughing.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} The cutting part can either be butt welded, soldered or welded on as tool tip or clamped firmly in place. Construction of shaping machines 3. It shall be taken from the operating instructions for the machine at which point the position of the ram stroke is to be set. A clutch can be actuated by means of a control lever as a result of which engagement or disengagement of the drive is effected. The kind of tool to be applied in each case is determined by the shape of the workpieces to be machined. Figure 4 - Feed gear 1 - table spindle 2 - ratchet wheel 3 - connecting rod push rod 4 - retaining pawl catcher 5 - toothed gear z 1 6 - toothed gear z 2 7 - eccentric pin 8 - link Shaping is a technique with straight-lined motion cutting and feed motion. Tools for shaping 4. Generally applicable international agreements exist also as far as the specification of the angles and faces and the designation of the various kinds of tools are concerned Tool angles Only when the cutting edges are properly ground, economic working with the tools is possible. Explain the terms "tool face" and "tool flank"! Care and maintenance of shaping machines. When high accuracy and surface quality are required, shaping is followed by other techniques, e. Institut fufliche Entwicklung e. Figure 13 - Workpiece clamping on machine vice 1 - machine vice 2 - workpiece with parallel outer surfaces 3 - clamping force in the plane of the cutting force 4 - tool Larger workpieces which cannot be clamped in the machine vice are set up directly on the machine table. Shaping is applied, for example, to remove cast-iron scale and to get fiat and aligned surfaces or to cut long or heavy parts for machining plate edges among other things. Machine column frame 2. Construction of shaping machines Mechanical shaping machines consist of the following major components: Figure 1 - Construction of a shaping machine 1 - machine column frame 2 - main gearing gear train and oscillating slider crank mechanism 3 - ram 4 - ram head with tool slide and tool post 5 - machine table 6 - saddle 7 - table support 8 - drive electro-motor Complete the following list of the major components of a shaping machine. The feed motion takes place in steps. Figure 14 - Workpiece clamping on machine table tongues 1 - machine table 2 - workpiece 3 - tongues clamping bolt 4 - clamp with bore hole 5 - base 6 - vertical clamping force Figure 15 - Workpiece clamping on machine table stop 1 - stop 2 - workpiece 3 - clamping slope 4 - clamp with bore hole 5 - base Magnetic chucks are mainly used for thin workpieces which would bend, if otherwise set up. The minimum amount for approach and overrun, however, must be ensured. In both extreme positions in which the cutting speed is zero, the direction is changed. Before the workpiece is clamped the position of the machine vice must be checked. The transmission elements are arranged on the operating side of the machine. If much material has to be removed, start working with the straight tool. So for each job the corresponding tool must be used. Purpose and importance of working with shaping machines 2. In general, the rake angle should be kept large to allow an easy cutting of chips. Figure 2 - Ram guides 1 - flat guide, 2 - dovetail guide The front side has been equipped with robust guideways for the compound slide, with additional support for the table that can be adjusted in height by means of a spindle see Fig. The slotting tools are similar to the turning tools and have various shapes. Cutting speed number of double strokes - The possible cutting speed is influenced by the driving force of the machine and the wear resistance of the tool. Preparation for working with shaping machines It is part of the preparation of the respective sequence of operations to lay out all necessary working means, objects of work and auxiliary equipment in a suitable manner and according to regulations so that they can immediately be used without losing any time. The average value is 30 mm. It is guided from the main gearing by transmission elements to the table spindle. If the demands stipulated for the surface quality are high, use the finishing tool. The machine table is additionally supported. Parkstra 23 Berlin Order No. For this reason recommended values specified are the mean cutting speed V. The box-like machine column frame is made of grey cast iron making possible vibration-free working and even heavy cuts big metal-removal volume per stroke. Special features of the tools Shank and tool point can be of the same material and form a unity solid steel. Its size is determined by the strength of the material to be machined. The decision in favour of one or the other kind of machining depends on the shape or configuration of the workpiece to be manufactured. Their exact functioning essentially depends on the proper operation of the control elements. For shaping oblique surfaces the tool slide can be swivelled on the swivel-head plate. Clamping the workpieces The workpiece clamping devices have the task to bring the workpiece into a certain position and to hold it in this position during machining. The main purpose of shaping is in most cases to remove relatively big amounts of material in the form of chips. The ram carries the ram head consisting of swivel-head plate, tool slide, clapper box with tool block and toolholder tool post. Since shaping can be understood as turning of workpieces with infinitely large diameter, there are many similar aspects between shaping and turning and shaping and turning tools. Setting and operation of shaping machines 6. Figure 8 - Classification of tools according to shank form 1 straight tool 2 bent tool 3 swan-necked tool 4 offset tool Figure 9 - Classification of tools according to tool tip position 1 left-hand tool 2 right-hand tool Figure 10 - Classification of tools according to tool tip shape 1 broad-nose tool 2 pointed tool Figure 11 - Classification of tools according to the application 1 shoulder tool 2 parting-off tool 3 grooving tool 4 hook tool 5 forming tool How to distinguish between left-hand and right-hand tools? Ram head with tool slide and tool post 5. Figure 5 - Conditions of motion during shaping 1 - tool 2 - workpiece 3 - cutting motion 4 - feed motion The workpiece clamping fixture compound slide consists of saddle and machine table see Fig. Recessing and shaping with formed tool can be carried out with automatic infeed, if adjustable stops or starting cams are mounted. Small stroke - no essentially longer path of the crank pin during the working stroke in comparison with the return stroke. In case of machines having fixed stroke lengths the stroke length which comes closest to the required stroke length L shall be set. Robust guideways for the ram have been arranged at the upper side. Each workpiece clamping must be - firm, safe and definite in position: - arranged in such a manner that the technically possible rated capacity of machines can best be utilized short preparation and finishing times ; - done in such a way that no permanent deformations result on the workpiece. However, the size of the rake angle is limited by the size of the wedge angle which depends on the material. The greatest or smallest possible stroke is reached in the two extreme positions of the crank pin and sliding block respectively see Fig. Clamping of tools The slotting tools are held in the tool holder which is located on the tool slide or at the base of the ram tool post. Machine vices are mainly used for small workpieces with parallel outer surfaces. This requires to know the different angles at the tool tip. Tools for shaping Knowing the tools, their shapes, kinds and application is necessary for an economic working. Setting is made by radial adjustment of the sliding block. Figure 7 - Setting of the tool box when oblique surfaces are to be shaped 1 - tool box 2 - workpiece Additional components Additional components are mounted for special operations. The working position is reached by the dead weight and, thus, by falling back. In this way the tool tip is protected. They produce mainly flat surfaces, shoulders, grooves and similar shapes. With older shaping machines the tool is dragging over the work-piece during the return stroke. Workpieces which cannot be clamped in the machine vice or mounted directly on the machine table are set up in workpiece clamping means. The feed gear produces the automatic transverse motion of the table with the workpiece set up on it feed motion. Fixing of the position is reached by tongues or stops. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Search How to Titles Subjects Organizations. Hard material requires a large wedge angle, e. When clamping workpieces on the machine table, in the machine vice and in the fixture take care to ensure that - an accurate position of the workpieces, parallelism and angularity in relation to the main motion are reached, - chips and dirt between the locating and supporting surfaces have been removed in order to prevent poor quality, - clamps rest horizontally on the workpiece, - clamping screws are as close to the workpiece as possible to transmit the highest possible clamping force, - clamping forces act in the direction of the stops and supports, - clamping elements are arranged in such a way that the cutting forces act against the fixed stops in the best possible way, - supports for clamping workpieces are ground exactly parallel, - points on workpieces which are sensitive to distortion are secured against distortion by means of supporting elements e. Too long clamping can result in bending and chatter marks; Figure 17 - Tool clamped too long 1 - bending of tool 2 - chatter marks on workpiece - when tightening the clamping screws the hand clamping forces always act downwards so that the tool block cannot be lifted; - with great clamping lengths appropriately large shank sections are used to prevent vibrations chatter marks, risk of breakage. Purpose and importance of working with shaping machines Shaping machines are machine tools which by way of chip removal give workpieces the desired shape, dimension and surface finish. The slotting tools are differentiated in general by their shank form, position of the primary cutting edge, cutting edge form and application. Soft material requires a small wedge angle, e. Fixtures are developed according to the conditions at the factory concerned. This requires plane-parallel surfaces and relatively little chip removal due to the low clamping force. The length of stroke has considerable influence on the cutting speed as well. Preparation for working with shaping machines 5.